During 2018 I took a course in Space Science (S818) with the Open University. This is a standalone PGCert course or can form part of an MSc. Below are descriptions of the course blocks together with interesting links.
The initial block of the course looked at the space environment, the basics of space vehicles operation and how to do science in space.
Looking at exploration of the Moon with Apollo 11 surface mission planning as an example. Human rating, the launch environment and telecommunications link budgets are also covered.
The Gaia and Hipparcos missions are used as examples to study astrometry and scientific instruments in space. To experience the stars mapped by Gaia download the Gaia Sky app.
The Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the Philae lander are used to demonstrate mission development and the operation of remote probes. Read Monica Grady's blog for a first hand account.
Mars is being explored by several rovers of which Curiosity is the latest and most complex. This is used as a means to examine mission operations and to provide and introduction to the rover week exercise in the Open University's Mars Yard.
As part of the course an ability to use the Python programming language is needed. Here is the free Open University course that supports this.
Venera-D, a proposed mission to Venus might carry up to 6U of CubeSats. What would they look like and what would they study?