Industrial Explosion and Fragmentation Hazards

High Tension Electrical Equipment

Hazards from explosions exist in the industrial field where hazardous materials storage, pressure vessels or accidental pressurisation of structures can wreak havoc. Switches and transformers on the Supergrid carry a risk from the release of energy during a short circuit. 

The two papers linked here examine the threat from porcelain insulator fragments thrown from equipment during simulated failure. Luckily the inherent danger of high voltage equipment means they are positioned in isolated locations, but explosions can still cause damage and also present a hazard to maintenance personnel.

Knock C, Horsfall I, Champion S & Horsfall I (2013) Development of a computer model to predict risks from an electrical bushing failure, Electric Power Systems Research, 103 86-91.

Knock C, Horsfall I, Champion S & Horsfall I (2013) Effect of core size and ground surface on debris fields of failed electric bushings, Electric Power Systems Research, 104 104-109.

Cable-Stayed Structures

 High velocity fragments pose a particular risk to cable suspended structures where the structural load may be concentrated across relatively small cross sections. Suspension cables are structurally complex and their response to fragments is poorly understood. The linked paper below is probably the first published study of their behavior during impact.  

Judge R, Yang Z, Jones SW, Beattie G & Horsfall I (2017) Spiral strand cables subjected to high velocity fragment impact, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 107 58-79.